Our online and real-world lives are increasingly influenced by algorithmic recommendations based on data gathered about our behavior by companies that are often reluctant to tell us what data they’re gathering how they are using it.
The companies that gather and use our data (usually for their own financial gain) are notably resistant to academic scrutiny they found. “Despite their powerful inﬂuence, there is little concrete detail about how exactly these algorithms work, so we had to use creative ways to find out,” says Dr Morreale.
The team looked at the legal documents of Tinder and Spotify because both platforms are grounded on recommendation algorithms that nudge users to either listen to speciﬁc songs or to romantically match up with another user. “They have been largely overlooked, compared to bigger tech companies such as Facebook, Google, Tik Tok etc., who have faced more scrutiny” he says. “People might think they’re more benign, but they are still highly influential.”
The researchers analysed various iterations of the legal documents over the past decade. Companies are increasingly required to let users know what data is being collected, yet the length and language of the legal documents could not be described as user-friendly.
“They tend toward the legalistic and vague, inhibiting the ability of outsiders to properly scrutinise the companies’ algorithms and their relationship with users. It makes it difficult for academic researchers and certainly for the average user,” says Dr Morreale. Their research did reveal several insights. Spotify’s Privacy Policies, for instance, show that the company collects much more personal information than it did in its early years, including new types of data.
“In their recommendations (and playlists for that matter) Spotify is also likely to be pushing artists from labels that hold Spotify shares – this is anti-competitive, and we should know about it.”
And probably contrary to most users’ perceptions, the dating app, Tinder, is “one big algorithm”, says Matt Bartlett. ““Tinder has previously stated that it matched people based on ‘desirability scores’ calculated by an algorithm. I don’t think users fully understand or know about how Tinder’s algorithm works, and Tinder goes out of its way not to tell us.”
“With these powerful digital platforms possessing considerable inﬂuence in contemporary society, their users and society at large deserve more clarity as to how recommendation algorithms are functioning,” says Dr Morreale. “It’s crazy that we can’t find out; I think in the future we’re going to look back and see this as the Wild West of big tech.”